Basmala: 'In the Name of Allah, Most Beneficent, Most Merciful'.
Dammah: A small apostrophe-like shape written above a letter. It represents a short vowel 'u' (like the 'u' sound in 'who' but only stretched for 1 count).
Definite Article : This is formed by adding the prefix "al" to the noun. "Al" is equal to "the" in English and it should be connected to the noun.
Fathah: A short diagonal stroke written above a letter. It represents a short vowel 'a' (like the 'a' sound in hat).
Ghunnah: The sound that is produced from the nose and the tongue is not used. The duration of the ghunnah sound is for 2 counts.
Harakat, (pl. Harakaat): The vowel movements.
Idghaam: The blending or assimilation of the sound of 2 letters.
Ikhfaa: The hiding or concealment of the sound of a letter.
Iqlaab : The changing or turning of the sound of a letter.
Ith'haar: The clarity of the sound of a letter.
Kasrah: A short diagonal stroke written below a letter. It represents a short vowel 'i' (like the 'i' sound in 'bee' but only stretched for 1 count).
Lahn: The incorrect pronunciation of a letter.
Madd: The prolongation of the sound of a vowel.
Makhraj, (pl. Makhaarij): The prescribed point of exit, or the point at which the sound originates.
Muttaharrik: A letter which carries a vowel.
Nunnation: See 'Tanween'.
Shaddah: A small 'w' written above a letter. This represents a letter that has been doubled, and therefore sounds stronger.
Sifa, (pl.Sifaat): The manner of articulation (the characteristics of the letters and recitation).
Sukoon (Saakin): A small semi or full circle written above a letter. This represents a letter which does not have a vowel. It also joins 2 letters.
Tafkheem: Also known as full mouth or thick letters. The elevation of the back of the tongue, resulting in a thick sound.
Tajweed: To improve, make better. The correct pronunciation during recitation.
Tanween : Vowels that produce a "nn" sound immediately after it.
Tanween (Fattah): Known as 'fattatain', 2 fattahs written above a letter (like the 'an' sound in 'man'). It is usually supported by an alif.
Tanween (Kasrah): Known as 'kasratain', 2 kasrahs written below a letter (like the 'in' sound in 'win').
Tanween (dammah): Known as 'dammatain', 2 dammahs written above a letter (like the 'un' sound in 'bun').
Tarqeeq : The opposite of 'tafkheem'. Also known as empty mouth or thin letters. The lowering of the back of the tongue, resulting in a flat sound.
Tarteel: The measured recitation of the Quran in rhythmic tones.
Ta'wawwuth: 'I seek refuge in Allah from the rejected shaitaan'
Waqf: To pause or to make a stop by breaking off the breath at the end of the word.
The opposite of waqf. The joining of verses / sentences without stopping.
1. Sifaat (pdf)
2. Sifaat Without Opposite (pdf)
3. Makharij (pdf)
4. Lahn (pdf)
5. The Definite Article (pdf)
6. Rules on pronouncing Hamza tul Wasl
7. Summarizing the rules of Hamza tul Wasl
8. The letter Raw
9. The letter Laam
10. Meem Saakin (pdf)
11. Noon Saakin And Tanween (pdf)
12. Rules of Idghaam (pdf)
13. Madd (pdf)
14. Stopping (pdf)
‘How perfect You are O Allah, and I praise You. I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except You. I seek Your forgiveness and turn to You in repentance.’